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In a Cincinnati, Ohio watershed, rain gardens were found to cost 42% less over their life cycle and reduce environmental impact by 62-98% when compared with conventional infrastructure to mitigate CSO overflows including a deep storage tunnel and treatment at a local plant.

Vineyard, Donald, Wesley W. Ingwersen, Troy R. Hawkins, Xiaobo Xue, Bayou Demeke, and William Shuster. (2015). Comparing Green and Grey Infrastructure Using Life Cycle Cost and Environmental Impact: A Rain Garden Case Study in Cincinnati, OH. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 1–19.


Stormwater management, Operations & maintenance savings, Construction cost savings, Bioretention

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