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In a study of four urban parks in low-income neighborhoods in San Francisco, the two recently-renovated parks saw more than a doubling in the number of visitors and a substantial increase in energy expended compared with the two parks that had not been renovated. Renovations were also associated with a significant increase in perception of park safety.

Cohen, Deborah A., Bing Han, Jennifer Isacoff, Bianca Shulaker, Stephanie Williamson, Terry Marsh, Thomas L. McKenzie, Megan Weir, and Rajiv Bhatia. (2015). Impact of park renovations on park use and park-based physical activity. Journal of Physical Activity & Health12(2), 289-295.


Recreational & social value, Health & well-being, Safety, Play equipment, Active living, Social equity

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