Results from a multi-year study demonstrate that a constructed stormwater wetland is effective in removing phosphorus, nitrogen, total suspended solids, copper, and E. coli in stormwater runoff. The 0.4-ha wetland has 20 plant species and treats an 18.2-ha suburban watershed. Phosphorus, nitrogen, and suspended solids were removed nearly year-round, with removal of total suspended solids highest during the summer. Performance of the wetland was consistent over two-year-long periods four years apart, though no maintenance was performed on the wetland.
Wadzuk, Bridget M., Matthew Rea, Gregg Woodruff, Kelly Flynn, and Robert G. Traver. (2010). Water-quality performance of a constructed stormwater wetland for all flow conditions. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 46(2), 385-394.