Return to Fast Fact Library

A systematic literature review found that the most efficient landscape typologies in cooling urban air temperatures are botanic gardens (6.3 to 9°F of cooling on average), wetlands (5.8 to 8.8°F), green walls (7.4 to 7.6°F), and street trees (5.6 to 6.8°F).

Kumar, Prashant, Sisay E. Debele, Soheila Khalili, Christos H. Halios, Jeetendra Sahani, Nasrin Aghamohammadi, Maria de Fatima Andrade, Maria Athanassiadou, Kamaldeep Bhui, Nerea Calvillo, Shi-Jie Cao, Frederic Coulon, Jill L. Edmondson, David Fletcher, Edmilson Dias de Freitas, Hai Guo, Matthew C. Hort, Madhusudan Katti, Thomas Rodding Kjeldsen, Steffen Lehmann, Giuliano Maselli Locosselli, Shelagh K. Malham, Lidia Morawska, Rajan Parajuli, Christopher D.F. Rogers, Runming Yao, Fang Wang, Jannis Wenk, and Laurence Jones. “Urban Heat Mitigation by Green and Blue Infrastructure: Drivers, Effectiveness, and Future Needs.” The Innovation 5, No. 2 (2024).


Temperature & urban heat island, Wetland, Trees, Green wall

The LPS Fast Fact Library is a collection of short summaries of landscape benefits derived from published research. The Landscape Architecture Foundation (LAF) compiles and writes the Fast Facts. LAF has no involvement in the data collection, analysis, review, publication, or funding of the research. If you have questions or comments on the Fast Fact Library itself, contact us at email hidden; JavaScript is required.

Help build the LPS: Find out how to submit a case study and other ways to contribute.